In my book, The Bammo Gaffus Maximus ( a book completed dedicated to gaffed decks new and old) I have a section on the 101 Deck which is usually attributed to Al Koran--but it's our pal, Harry Lorayne who should get the credit. Here's the excerpt from the book:
What has become known as the “1-0-1 Deck,” is described in, “Five Star Prediction,” Al Koran’s Legacy by Hugh Miller, Repro 71, 1972, pp.19-25. It is a force deck consisting of four force cards repeated in sequence with an indifferent card between each force card.
It was invented by Harry Lorayne.
Denis Behr offers the earliest reference: p. 32 of Frederick Montague's Westminster Wizardry (1928). Force cards with a value of 10 are alternated with random cards to force the number 10. Cards are taken off the deck face down, one by one and dropped on the floor until "Stop" is called. If the card in the hand is a 10, that is interpreted as the selection; if not, it's the card on top of the deck.
Denis also cites: Edward Bagshawe's, “Sealed Mystery,” in Twenty Magical Novelties (1930, p. 26); "Curious Coincidence" in Jean Hugard's Card Manipulations No. 5 (1936, P.149); and, S. Leo Horowitz's "Psychological Discovery," in Greater Magic (1938, p.549).
All of these use a regular deck and a small number of force cards. No duplicate cards are used.
Harry Lorayne started with a similar idea, a regular deck and a small number of force cards as described in his 1958 booklet, Best Of Bill-Fooled, but then he went on to suggest a full deck stack with four force cards repeated.
In 1998, Harry published The Himber Wallet Book, which is an update of all of his Himber Wallet material. Harry says this at page 30:
“In BEST OF BILL-FOOLED, I devoted quite a few pages to methods for doing the same thing with a completely set-up or gaffed deck. Simple really. The deck consisted of the eight cards repeated throughout.”
I think that nails it: Harry Lorayne invented the “1-0-1 Deck.”
At page 65, Harry writes:
“I knew Al Koran (was introduced to him by Richard Himber, as a matter of fact) ....”
Koran knew a good idea when he saw it. The trick he is most associated with using the “1-0-1 Deck,” was also invented by Harry. See, "Five Star Miracle" in The Hundred Dollar Book, reprinted in the Himber book at pp.27-31.
The deck is held face down and cards are dealt off one by one into a face-up pile. Since seven cards always separate any duplicate force card, the duplication is usually not noticed. Koran had the dealing done from a face-up deck, with an indifferent card starting on the face. That way he could see if anything had gone wrong.
In the Koran routine, the spectator holds the deck and deals the cards. At any point, he stops. If the face-up card is a force card, then that card is interpreted as the selection.
If it isn’t, then the next card is interpreted as the selection.
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